Sea of purple: Swiss women strike for equal pay

Two women, Micheline Calmy-Rey and Ruth Metzler-Arnold, served on the Swiss Federal Council from 1999 to 2003; when Ruth Metzler-Arnold failed to be re-elected in 2003, the number fell back to at least one. With the election of Doris Leuthard in 2006, there were again two, and, after January 2008, three with the arrival of Eveline Widmer Schlumpf. Micheline Calmy-Rey was elected President of the Swiss Confederation for 2007 and 2011.

With the onset of the Civil War, the suffrage movement lost some momentum, as many women turned their attention to aiding in efforts associated to the battle between the states. Following the convention, the idea of voting rights for girls was mocked within the press and some delegates withdrew their assist for the Declaration of Sentiments. Nonetheless, Stanton and Mott continued—they went on to spearhead extra women’s rights conferences and so they have been ultimately joined in their advocacy work by Susan B. Anthony and other activists. The marketing campaign for women’s suffrage was a small however growing motion in the a long time earlier than the Civil War.

The European Commission said it would have to look at the implications of the end result on EU–Swiss relations since literal implementation would invoke the guillotine clause. By 2010, Switzerland had amassed around 210 commerce treaties with the EU. José Manuel Barroso, the President of the European Commission, later affirmed this place. However, a second referendum on Swiss EEA membership isn’t anticipated, and the Swiss public stays against joining. Switzerland is a member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and took part in negotiating the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement with the European Union.

The European Union is Switzerland’s largest trading associate, and Switzerland is the EU’s fourth largest buying and selling companion, after the United Kingdom, U.S. and China. Switzerland accounts for 5.2% of the EU’s imports; primarily chemical substances, medicinal merchandise, equipment, instruments and time pieces.

Starting within the 1820s, numerous reform groups proliferated across the U.S. including temperance leagues, the abolitionist motion and non secular groups. The official flag of the Swiss Confederation, as we know it at present, dates back to 1840. Certain believe that it symbolised the blood of Christ, whereas others suggest that the selection was impressed by the colour of the previous Bernese flag. In 1848, it was officially adopted as the nationwide flag and enshrined in the Swiss Constitution.

Head-König, Anne-Lise in Population in German, French and Italian in the on-line Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Switzerland’s thirteen institutes of higher learning enrolled 99,600 students in the academic year of .

The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outdoors Europe are found in the United States and Canada. From 1860 to 1874, the first feminist actions have been organized and, contemporaneously, the first constitutional revision of 1874; the political rights of ladies became the object of numerous discussions. In 1886, a primary petition from a gaggle of eminent women led by Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin was presented to the Federal Assembly.

Union of Swiss Senior Women for Climate Protection v. Swiss Federal Council and Others

The consideration attracted by this initiative opened the way in which for the first article about the claims of ladies in a big day by day, Ketzerische Neujahrsgedanken einer Frau (Heretical New Years’ Thoughts of a Woman), by Meta von Salis revealed in 1887 by the Zürcher Post. In the identical year, Emilie Kempin-Spyri demanded before the federal court the best to turn into a lawyer.

Thanks to its location at the crossroads of three main European cultures (German, French and Italian), Switzerland has a wealthy and varied arts and culture scene. By June 2019, the Swiss Federal Council found no meaningful compromise neither with the interior consulting partners, corresponding to Swiss labour unions and enterprise representatives, nor with the outgoing EU-fee president Jean-Claude Juncker. EU-member international locations have also expressed that no further compromise on the text of the proposed framework accord with Switzerland could be possible. In a referendum in February 2014, the Swiss voters narrowly approved a proposal to limit the liberty of movement of international citizens to Switzerland.


Alemannic German, traditionally amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and the Alemanni. Closely associated German-talking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. About 11% of residents live abroad (zero.8 million, of whom 0.6 million maintain a number of citizenship). About 60% of these dwelling overseas reside in the European Union (0.forty six million).

It signed the agreement on 2 May 1992, and submitted an software for accession to the EU on 20 May 1992. However, after a Swiss referendum held on 6 December 1992 rejected EEA membership by 50.three% to 49.7%, the Swiss authorities determined to droop negotiations for EU membership till additional discover. These did not resume and in 2016, Switzerland formally withdrew its utility for EU membership.

In terms of services, the EU’s exports to Switzerland amounted to €sixty billion in 2008 while imports from Switzerland stood at €47.2 billion. With 25% of the inhabitants resident aliens, Switzerland has one of the highest ratios of non-naturalized inhabitants in Europe (comparable to the Netherlands; roughly twice the ratio of Germany). In 2003, 35,424 residents have been naturalized, a quantity exceeding web inhabitants development. Over the 25-yr period of 1983 to 2007, 479,264 resident foreigners had been naturalized, yearly numbers rising gradually from under 10,000 (zero.1%) in the Eighties to above forty,000 (zero.6%) within the 2000s.


The structure of 1848, the origin of modern Switzerland, proclaims the equality in the eyes of the regulation of all human beings (in German, Menschen) but doesn’t explicitly embody women in that equality. However, the laws that adopted that structure rigidly positioned women in a state of affairs of authorized inferiority.